The Seed Ambassadors Project

Bringing Biodiversity Back

Author: Sarah Kleeger

Beating Black Leg on Brassicas

No FOMO* for Phoma

There are plenty of things about Oregon’s Willamette Valley that are worthy of FOMO, or the *Fear of Missing Out. We have mild winters, fertile soils, & natural beauty abounds. Phoma lingam, however, is not FOMO-worthy. Since 2014, the Willamette Valley has been hit with Phoma lingam, aka Black Leg, a fungal disease that affects all species of Brassica family plants including kale, cabbage, turnips, & many other important food crops, as well as many common weeds such as wild mustard. Black leg causes stunted growth, girdling of the stem, & can lead to great reductions in yield & sometimes plant death. It is estimated that around 10,000 acres of Willamette Valley brassicas were infected in 2014, & similar numbers may have been infected in 2015.

Phoma lingam at leaf spot stagePhoma lingam lesion at base of stem Phoma lingam stem cankers


What is being done about it?

The disease is thought to have come in on infected seed, & so in response the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has passed an administrative rule requiring all Brassica seed that will be planted in the Willamette Valley in quantities over 1/2 oz, to have been tested from a qualified, approved laboratory, and to be treated for the disease, even if the test results are negative.

At Adaptive Seeds, seed quality is a priority & we are committed to providing seeds that exceed our customers’ expectations. Even though most of our Brassica varieties are not sold in packages over 1/2 oz, we have decided to test  all of our Brassica seed lots, & all of the test results so far have been negative. At this point, we are not treating any of our seed prior to sale.

The ODA’s rule about seed treatment does not specify who must treat the seed (seller or buyer), only that it must be treated. (Also, at this point, the rule is not actively being enforced.) Hot water is the only treatment currently approved for organic systems.  Seed must be pre-warmed for 10 minutes at 100˚F, then treated for 15 – 30 minutes (depending on seed type) at 122˚F, then immediately cooled & thoroughly dried (or planted). The margin of error for the temperature of the hot water bath is .1˚F. This, coupled with the time & equipment needs, makes compliance difficult for many growers. Some seeds, such as arugula & cress, cannot be treated with hot water because they release a gelatinous ooze; there is currently no organic option for treating these types of seeds. Nick Andrews of Oregon State University (OSU) Extension has prepared an excellent slide show of the step-by-step process that Frank Morton of Wild Garden Seeds & Tom Stearns of High Mowing Seeds use to treat their seeds.

We do not support the requirement that seeds be treated when a lab test shows that they are not infected. Despite the fact that seed is the primary way the ODA is trying to control the disease, seed is not the source of most infection. Even though there is rampant spread of the Phoma in the valley, researchers are having a hard time finding naturally infected seeds with which to do their research. This is because in order for a seed to become infected, the seed pod must be infected from water-splashed spores. Seed infection is not the result of a systemic infection of the plant, but rather the result of a direct infection on the seed pod. A plant can be infected with Phoma & still not produce infected seed. In a recent presentation, Cindy Ocamb, OSU plant pathologist, reported that in a field with over 70% infection of storage roots in a turnip seed crop, no infected seed was found.

Presented by Cindy Ocamb at OSU NWREC Crucifer Meeting, 2014

Presented by Cynthia Ocamb, Plant Pathologist, at OSU NWREC Crucifer Meeting, 2014

Cultural Control Methods

Even with seed testing & treatment protocols in place, Phoma is in the Valley &  it will likely continue to spread. Managing diseased plants in the field is the best way to control Phoma. The disease has two reproductive phases. The asexual stage infects leaf tissue & spreads through rain or irrigation events when ascospores are splash-spread up the plant or on to neighboring plants. Leaf infection can reach the plant’s vasculature & become systemic. This stage of the disease can be kept in check by monitoring the field & removing infected leaves.

The sexual stage of Phoma is the more difficult to control because infected plant residues can persist in/on the soil for several years, especially in no-till farm systems. In this stage the ascospores are airborne & can travel several miles to infect new fields. The sexual stage requires woody debris to overwinter & reproduce, so this stage of the fungus is primarily found in crop debris from overwintered Brassica crops (which tend to have woodier stems than spring or summer crops). Spores are released when temperatures are between 46˚F & 59˚F. Because the Willamette Valley has vast acreages of Brassica seed production (especially for forage & cover crops) & this is a frequent temperature range for our fall & spring weather, our area has proven to be an easy place for Phoma to get a foothold.

On smaller &/or organic acreages, the sexual stage of Phoma can be controlled by practicing good field sanitation. In smaller plots, this can include removal of all Brassica plant debris from the field. An alternative to removal of plant material, & more appropriate for field scale plantings, is multiple flail mowings followed by shallow incorporation; in biologically active soils the plant debris will break down very quickly & not release spores. Crop rotation, including keeping Brassicas at least 1/4 mile from previously infected fields & not planting Brassicas in the same field more than once in four years, is also effective at limiting the disease. If Phoma becomes a problem in your farm or garden, it is recommended to avoid planting overwintering Brassicas for one year as a way to break the cycle.

Here at Adaptive Seeds, we are practicing all of these cultural control methods, even though Phoma has not yet been confirmed in our fields. It is clear to us that small & organic producers are not responsible for the appearance or spread of the disease. The large conventional fields of canola, forage, & cover crop Brassicas, which are frequently integrated as a rotation in no-till fields, have fostered this epidemic. Still, we all need to do what we can to limit its spread.

The current ODA rule is “final but temporary,” & updates are expected within the next several months. We are involved with a group of stakeholders working to change the hot water treatment requirement. If you are a grower in Oregon that is interested in joining this group, please email us at seed(at)  We will keep this post updated as the rule changes.


For more information, please check out the following:

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook: Cabbage and Cauliflower (Brassica sp.) – Black Leg {Phoma Stem Canker} – lots of good photos & basic info on disease identification & management.

OSU Extension Clinic Close-up 1/16: Black Leg, Light Leaf Spot & White Leaf Spot in Western Oregon provides an excellent summary of the situation as well as good photos.

Small-scale Cost-Effective Hot Water Treatment slides by Nick Andrews, OSU Extension, featuring techniques developed by Frank Morton & Tom Stearns,  makes on-farm hot water treatment seem not so bad.

Power Point Presentation by OSU Plant Pathologist Cynthia Ocamb  – a bit of background on the disease & preliminary findings from 2014.

OSU Extension Clinic Close-up 1/16: Phoma Lingam and Crucifer Seeds

ODA rule FAQ

Temporary Rule Filing 7/10/14

Managing Seed Borne Disease: Brassica Black Leg and Implications for Organic Seed Producers and Industry – webinar from the 2016 Organic Seed Growers Conference, soon to be posted by Check back soon for this  to be linked!



We Love Growing Dry Beans, You Might Too!

Growing dry beans can be a fun & beautiful addition to the garden. If you have space, it is easy to produce homestead quantities of dry beans to feed your family. On a small farm scale growing dry beans can provide a profitable addition to the farmer’s market display. Conveniently, seed saving is the same as crop harvest for dry beans, which makes them a crop you only have to buy seed for once (unless you accidentally eat them all).

We sometimes sell a mix of bean varieties as a "Bean Party." So pretty!

We sometimes sell a mix of bean varieties as a “Bean Party.” So pretty!

Here at Adaptive Seeds, we love to grow beans almost as much as we like to eat them (which is a lot). Producing them is a bit of a process but it’s pretty fun & you’re rewarded with piles of delicious, nutritious jewels at the end so it’s totally worth it.

As market growers, we were attracted to dry bean production because we saw a need for local staple food production – for food security as much as to fill a market niche – & soon discovered we could sell all of the beans we could produce. We also really like having dry beans fill a spot in our field rotations. In the past we have planted as many as 6 acres in dry beans, but it didn’t take us long to figure out that if we planted less acreage but took better care of it, we could have much higher yields & fewer headaches. Since we’ve shifted our focus to seed production, we have reduced our dry bean crop size further & now grow about ½ acre of beans per year, still selling some as food. Following is an assortment of tips & tricks for dry bean production, & details of our bean enterprise budget from 2014.


In our area (The Willamette Valley of Oregon), dry beans can be planted until the beginning of June, which means you still have some time to get a crop in the ground this season. Our goal is to sow our dry beans by mid-May, but we have successfully harvested earlier varieties (such as Early Warwick) from sowing as late as June 10.

Dry beans are sensitive to frost & need warm soil to germinate, so sowing earlier isn’t necessarily worth it. The real trick is getting the crop harvested before the rains come in September – for this reason, we choose varieties with shorter days-to-maturity. Some dry beans take as many as 110 days to mature, but the varieties we offer at Adaptive Seeds all mature in 95 days or less. This is true for both bush & pole types. For farm scale food production we prefer bush types, but pole types can be higher yielding in a smaller space. The information that follows is for bush types only.

A July 2 photo of a dry bean field that was seeded on May 18.

A July 2 photo of a dry bean field that was seeded on May 18.


We have experimented with several regimes for fertility, plant spacing, & irrigation, & have concluded that the best way for us to grow bush dry beans is to grow them the same way we grow bush snap beans. Our dry beans get the same amount of fertility as our vegetable crops (we use 75# of 4-4-4 per 200′ bed). Our farm bed tops are 44” wide, and we sow 3 rows per bed spaced 1′ apart. We direct seed our dry beans with an Earthway® seeder, & don’t bother to thin them. The beans get about 1” of irrigation from overhead sprinklers per week, until August 1 when we cut off water to encourage the beans to dry down, with our goal to begin harvest by September 1. We used to inoculate our beans before planting but have stopped – it seems the bacteria exist in our soil at this point & it’s a bit of a hassle. If you’re new to growing beans &/or don’t use organic methods, we recommend inoculating beans before planting. We usually weed the beans three times during the season.


Beans are ready to harvest when pods are dry but not split open & most of the leaves are yellow &/or dropping. It can be tricky to get the timing right because with most heirloom varieties not all pods ripen at the same time. It is usually better to harvest when most of the beans are ready than to wait for the last pods to dry down – if you wait this long you’ll likely lose more beans to shattering (when the pods open & beans fall out), than you will gain by waiting for those stragglers.

At harvest time we simply pull plants out by hand. This is a good task to do in the morning, as there will be some moisture on the plants & the pods are less prone to shattering than when harvested in the afternoon. We then shake / wipe the dirt off the roots (this is VERY important, as any dirt clods that make it onto your tarp will have to be picked out later), & toss whole plants onto smaller tarps (8′ x 10′) that we drag along behind us on the beds.

At the end of this process, we drag the tarps off the beds onto a much larger tarp or old shade cloth that’s on a farm road, & spread them out in the sun to dry for 2 – 3 days. We use tarps that are at least 20′ x 60′, but bigger is even better (depending on the size of your crop) – if you don’t have a tarp that large you can patchwork a few smaller ones together. Old shade cloth is much better than tarps for this purpose, because it is “self-healing” if stabbed by a pitchfork – & – perhaps more importantly – it’s porous, so if it rains or there is heavy dew, the water doesn’t pool under the beans.

Tires double as threshing equipment & seed dispersal mechanism.

Tires double as threshing equipment & seed dispersal mechanism.


Threshing is next, & it’s where the fun begins. After the plants have dried down, & hopefully on a hot, dry afternoon, we drive on the beans to thresh them. Our farm truck is a 1992 Ford F150, but we’ve also used a Toyota pickup & seen videos of folks using tractors. The key to this step is to start on the outside of the pile with the driver’s side of the truck, & go back & forth slowly making your way across the pile until it’s all flat. I usually go side to side two times, then get out, stir / flip the beans with a pitchfork, & do it again. Two times through the process is usually enough. Of course if you’re doing a smaller quantity (or even a larger one & you’re up for it), you can thresh the old-fashioned way: by dancing. For medium-sized quantities, we throw some varieties through a modified wood chipper.

Once threshing is complete, it’s time to scalp the beans by raking plants into piles, picking the piles up with a pitchfork, & tossing the larger plant debris onto another tarp to haul to the compost pile (or you can just toss it aside). It’s good to give the pitchfork a good shake &/or toss the pile into the air & catch it again, to make sure all of the beans have fallen out. This is my favorite part. A slight breeze is helpful to this process – you’ll quickly learn which direction to work in if the wind is blowing. This can be a dusty job so you might want to wear a bandana or dust mask.

At the end of scalping, there will be smaller debris & lots of beans on the tarp. At this point you can do a quick field winnow using the breeze (with or without a screen) to remove the larger debris, or just gather the beans into your totes to take in & winnow later. The more you minimize plant material at this point the better – it may take a while to get around to the next step (you are a Farmer in September, after all) & you could save a few buckets worth of volume with a quick field winnow.

Sarah scalps beans after threshing to remove large plant debris

Sarah scalps beans after threshing to remove large plant debris

Winnow & Clean

The next step is to winnow. We use a box fan on its highest setting for beans, pouring the dirty beans in front of the fan so the rest of the plant material blows away. We recommend using a screen at this point to get out the large dirt clods & larger plant pieces, too. Most of the time each bean variety gets winnowed 2 to 3 times.

At the end of this process the beans are mostly clean. The only thing left to do is to pick out the dirt clods that are the same size as the beans. We do this step using an Anderson nursery flat as a tray, so the smaller pieces of dirt & tiny beans will screen out. This is where you will be happy that you removed the dirt from the plants at harvest.

The beans are now ready to store or sell. We store our cleaned beans in 4 gallon buckets & bag them up as needed for market. The great thing about growing beans for market is their shelf-life, as beans will last for years (though we recommend selling for food within 1 year of harvest). This, along with the financial numbers (below) makes them a good addition not only to autumn markets, but potentially winter & spring markets as well – if you can produce enough!

Totes of dry beans make excellent barn lounge furniture.

Totes of dry beans make excellent barn lounge furniture.

The Numbers

The following chart shows our direct costs for labor & inputs for about ½ acre of dry bean production in 2014. This is equivalent to 24 x 200′ beds (14,400 row feet). Eight varieties were sown – with variable germination. If all one variety, labor costs would be lower & with better germination yields could have been several hundred pounds higher.

In sum,  we produced about 940 lbs of beans. In our market (Eugene, Oregon), these beans (all heirloom varieties & certified organic) would sell for $7/lb as food, but we have seen dry beans fetch up to $12/lb in Portland. After all labor (122 hours of bean-experienced labor @$15 per hr) & direct expenses (fertility, seed cost) were taken into account, the $7/lb price would result in a net profit of $3,891.75. This number does not include overhead & marketing expenses, but even then, it is a respectable bottom line – if you have extra space, dry beans are well worth the time!


Adaptive Seeds 2014 Dry Bean Production Detail
Date Activity Time Cost Notes
5/14 Field Prep 4 hrs $260 @$15/hr human + $50/hr tractor
5/15 Fertility $360 4-4-4, 1800 lbs
5/15 Seed $210 30 lbs @ $7/lb food rate – cost would be higher with purchased seed.
5/15 Sowing 4 hrs $60 @ $15/hr. 10 minutes/bed with Earthway, includes mapping & marking varieties.
6/3 Weeding – tractor 1 hr $65 @$15/hr human + $50/hr tractor. Using tine weeder.
6/18 Weeding – hoe 16 hrs $240 @ $15/hr. Using wheel hoe & 8” stirrup hoe.
7/15 Weeding – hoe 10 $150 @ $15/hr. Using wheel hoe & 8” stirrup hoe.
6/1 – 7/31 Irrigation 5 $100 8 times running irrigation in June & July. Includes $25 for electricity for pump, 1 hr to set line, 4 hrs turning pump on & off @$15/hr.
9/1 – 9/19 (1 – 2 varieties per session, 6 sessions) Harvest & tarp 21.75 $326.25 @ 15/hr, avg 2.6 hrs / variety. Includes hand pulling plants, removing dirt clods from roots, & spreading plants on large tarp or shade cloth to dry for 2+ days.
9/3 – 9/22 Thresh 9.5 $142.50 @ 15/hr, avg 1.2 hrs/ variety. Includes driving on tarp of beans with pickup truck, stirring pile, driving again, removing large plant debris, & collecting beans into totes.
9/4 – 9/23 Winnow 7.5 $112.50 @$15/hr, avg .9 hr/ variety. Includes pouring threshed & scalped beans in front of fan two times/ variety.
9/5 – 10/2 Clean – seed cleaner 16 $240 @$15/hr, avg 1 hr/ variety with 2 people operating machine. Using Hance fanning mill type seed cleaner. Anderson type nursery flats can be used to screen most types of beans instead of seed cleaner & might be faster.
9/10 – 10/4 Clean – hand sort 30 $450 @$15/hr, Avg .75 hr/25 lb bucket. Includes picking out bean-sized dirt clods & split beans.

Labor Expense Total

From sowing through hand-sort



Total labor cost for production.

Input Expense Total $845 From above – fertility, field prep, seed cost, tractor & irrigation. Note: costs do not include overhead & marketing expenses, & assumes tarps, fan, totes & pitchfork are on hand.

Expense Grand Total


Total production costs.

Adaptive Seeds 2014 Dry Bean Production Summary

Total Yield 944 lbs $6608 @$7/lb market rate (we’ve seen dry beans as much as $12/lb in other markets). Up to .3 lbs/ bed foot with good germination, as low as .19 lbs/ bed foot with low germination.
Expense Totals -$2716.25 From above –includes labor & inputs: fertility, field prep, seed cost, tractor & irrigation. Note: costs do not include overhead & marketing expenses, & assumes tarps, fan, totes & pitchfork are on hand.

Net Profit


Note: costs for overhead & marketing are not included.

Other considerations

Beans are sensitive to frost & to extreme heat – they’ll set fewer & smaller beans at 90˚F & abort at temperatures above 95˚F so they are not a good crop choice in areas with very hot summers. They are also sensitive to disease in humid areas, & in some places pests such as the Mexican Bean Beetle can be a serious issue (not here, though!).

Our soil is fairly heavy & retains moisture well. Sandier soils will probably need more irrigation BUT may not cling to roots at harvest for quicker harvest & processing times.

Dry beans need to be able to dry down in August & September. If it’s dependably rainy where you live, this is not the crop for you.

Beans must be dried to less than 15% moisture before storage or else they will mold. If harvested when mature & cleaned in a dry period, no extra drying is necessary, but sometimes we run beans through a dehydrator set to 90˚F for 24 hrs before storing.


An Adaptive Guide to Growing Garlic

‘All Things Garlic’ – Organic Guide to Growing Garlic

At Adaptive Seeds garlic is one of our favorite crops. It is garlic seed buying season, so we thought we would share this organic guide to growing garlic. We cover some basic (and not so basic) info about how to grow garlic organically and care for this kitchen staple.

First, it is good to know what different kinds of garlic are available. We offer two of the three main types of garlic at Adaptive Seeds.

So named because it produces a woody stem, this type of garlic is known for havinggarlicmusic fewer (4 – 12) easier-to-peel cloves than softneck garlic. It generally has a more pungent flavor, which many garlic lovers prefer. Hardneck garlic tends to have fewer of the papery sheathes both around the clove and around the bulb. This wrapping protects the garlic from light and changes in humidity, so hardneck garlic does not store as long as softneck. Generally speaking, hardnecks store well for about 3 – 4 months. We offer two types of hardneck garlic – Porcelain & Glazed Purple Stripe.

Varieties include: Donostia Red, Shvelisi / Chesnook Red, Music, Purple Glazer, Romanian Red, Rosewood, Purple Italian Easy Peel, Zemo.

garlic nootka roseIn contrast to hardneck garlic, this type of garlic has a pliable stem (neck). Softneck garlic stores better and can be more productive. We offer several varieties of Silverskin type softneck, which is the most common garlic for commercial growers and what you most likely find in the grocery store. Silverskins have excellent storage and pure white bulb wrappers. Silverskin garlic can have up to 40 well-wrapped cloves per bulb. We also have Artichoke types of softneck garlic. Artichokes have only about 12 – 20 cloves each, and both the cloves and bulbs tend to be significantly larger than Silverskin varieties. Artichoke garlics tend to mature up to 4 weeks earlier than Silverskin types. Both are great storage types and generally speaking can store up to 9 months.

Varieties include: St. Helens, Polish White, Broadleaf Czech, Harry’s Italian Late, Nootka Rose, Oregon Blue Silverskin, Siskiyou Purple,

Elephant garlic is not technically garlic at all, though it looks, acts, and tastes similarly. It is a leek, and has a much milder flavor than true garlic. The bulbs usually form giant 3-6 cloves. This type will produce a scape, like hardneck garlic, and also stores about the same as hardnecks.

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Seed Swaps for Everyone – A How To

The world could always use more seed swaps and here are a few tips for organizing your own Seed Swap. (Thanks to Kim in central Virginia for the e-mail prompting this blog post.)

The folks at Seedy Sunday Brighton have a whole page devoted to hosting a seed swap. Food not Lawns also has a bit about organizing one.

The first thing is to get some friends involved, because it can be a lot of work (organizing, set up, clean up, promotion, etc.). If you don’t know anyone that will help you, post some fliers at garden stores or your local natural foods store, or maybe even the community garden bulletin board if your community is lucky enough to have one.

We have seen a few ways seed swaps can be organized. You have to decide which is best for your group.

Seedy Sunday Brighton has a central table, and when people come in, they give their seeds to the table, then volunteers organize them for redistribution. This way seems overly centralized and impersonal to me, but it works for them, and it may be necessary to do it this way at an event that draws upwards of 1,000 people. They also charge a small entrance fee to cover their expenses and require either a straight across swap of seed for seed or 50 pence for a seed pack, partly because “people don’t value that which is free.” At every other seed swap I have been to, everything is free.

A second way is to set up tables and have people stand near their stuff, so they can explain it to others that might have questions. This is what we do at the smaller fall seed swap.

A third way, which is also good, is to set up tables and have designated areas for different types of plants: flowers, herbs, tomatoes, etc. this is what we do at our large spring seed swap.

Most seed swaps descend into a sort of chaos even with the rough framework, so you could just have some tables and have people toss their seeds wherever they land. Then it’s a real treasure hunt!

Some other tips:

* If the group is 30 people or less, it is nice to stand in a circle and have people introduce themselves and what they’ve brought. This gives the swap more of a community vibe.

* If you know any seed geeks or old gardener types, be sure and personally invite them to help ensure there are some good seeds there.

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